Cashing of cheques on condition of buying goods from the shop

Question:

I run a shop with a partner where our main business is cashing of cheques. People come  to us with their wages which have been paid by cheque and due to it taking quite long in a bank decide to cash it in shops such as ours. It is agreed and known by the people that a certain percentage from the amount is to be used to buy goods from the shop. The percentage is negotiated and varies with each person. Once this has been done the customer takes the cash and may come later to collect the goods he has bought.

Please also note that the shops capital does not usually exceed K100,000. This means that sometimes if a the sum of money is very large the shop is unable to cash it due to lack of funds. So I decided to on my own cash the cheque by myself with my own money. The problem arises that I am unable to sell goods to the customer since I am now not actually working as the shop. So can I just tell the person that for the percentage of the cheque, instead of selling goods as the normal case, I will sell you this pen for that percentage. Is doing this allowed?

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle, the bearer of the cheque, whether cash or postdated is a creditor. The issuer of the cheque is a debtor who has transferred his debt to the bank in the form of a cheque. A transferal of a debt is termed as hawala and is permissible with the consent of all the parties involved. In the enquired situation, employees receive pay cheques from their employers. Accordingly, the employer is a debtor and the employees are creditors. The employer has transferred the debt to the bank with the consent and agreement of the employees. If the employees wish to cash the cheque by private persons besides the bank, this will be another transferal of the debt.

In a transferal of a debt the exact amount oweable has to be transferred. It is not permissible for the cashier of the cheque to derive any benefit from the cashing of the cheques whether by paying a lessor amount to the bearer in which case the cashier will benefit from the surplus amount. For example the cheque is k1000 and it is cashed for k950. The cashier will benefit k50 when cashing the cheque. This is not permissible as it is deriving benefit from a loan which is interest and is prohibited.[1]

Similarly, it is not permissible for a cashier of the cheque to put a condition on the bearer of the cheque to purchase items at his store as cashing the cheque is a loan and putting a condition on the bearer to purchase from his shop is deriving benefit from the loan.[2]

Accordingly, the issue of the pen as a strategy will also not be permissible because the cashier accepts to cash the cheque on condition that bearer buys the pen for him for a certain amount. If he cashes it directly or through the pen strategy, both will be conditions on the loan.

However, if the bearers (employees) purchase items on their own, without any obligations on them then this will be permissible.

[1]   المحيط البرهاني

قال محمد رحمه الله في كتاب الصرف: إن أبا حنيفة كان يكره كل قرض جر منفعة قال الكرخي: هذا إذا كانت المنفعة مشروطة في العقد بأن أقرض عادلية صحاحاً أو ما أشبه ذلك، فإن لم تكن المنفعة مشروطة في العقد، فأعطاه المستقرض أجود مما عليه، فلا بأس به، وكذلك إذا أقرض الرجل رجلاً دراهم أو دنانير ليشتري المستقرض متاعاً بثمن غال فهو مكروه، وإن لم يكن شراء المتاع مشروطاً في القرض، ولكن المستقرض اشترى من المقرض بعد القرض متاعاً بثمن غال فعلى قول الكرخي: لا بأس به. وذكر الخصاف في «كتابه» وقال: ما أحب له ذلك، وذكر شمس الأئمة الحلواني أنه حرام؛ لأن هذا قرض جر منفعة؛ لأنه يقول: لو لم أشتره منه طالبني بالقرض في الحال.

وذكر محمد رحمه الله في كتاب الصرف: أن السلف كانوا يكرهون ذلك، إلا أن الخصاف لم يذكر الكراهة إنما قال: لا أحب له ذلك، فهو قريب من الكراهة لكنه دون الكراهة، ومحمد لم ير بذلك بأساً، فإنه قال في كتاب الصرف: المستقرض إذا أهدى للمقرض شيئاً لا بأس به من غير فصل، فإنه دليل على أنه رفض قول السلف.

قال شيخ الإسلام خواهرزاده رحمه الله: ما نقل عن السلف محمول على ما إذا كانت المنفعة وهي شراء المتاع بثمن غال مشروطة في الاستقراض، وذلك مكروه بلا خلاف، وما ذكر محمد رحمه الله محمول على ما إذا لم تكن المنفعة والهدية مشروطة في القرض وذلك لا يكره بلا خلاف، هذا إذا تقدم الإقراض في البيع.

كذا في الفتاوى التاترخانية والالفتاوى الهندية

[2]  المرجع السابق

Source 

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2 thoughts on “Cashing of cheques on condition of buying goods from the shop

  1. Abu Yusuf

    Asalamu alaikum….what if you tell the person that you only cash cheques for customers. It is then up to the person to decide whether he wants to become a customer by purchasing an item or not. Is this allowed?

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