When Should a Masbooq Stand up to Complete his Missed Rak’aat?

Question:

If a person missed a rak’ah or rak’aats of Fardh Salaah, should a person stand up to complete his Salaah after the first or second salaam of the Imaam? Some people do it after the first salaam and others do it after the second salaam. Which is correct?

Answer: حامدا ومصليا ومسلما

There seems to be some confusion on this issue for quite some time. Therefore a detailed answer will be needed to clarify the issue with the help of Allah Ta’ala.

First and foremost, the vast majority of scholars agree that the last sitting (qa’dah akhirah) in Salah is compulsory. They differ concerning the amount that is compulsory.[1] The Hanafi scholars state that it is Fardh to sit in the last qa’dah for the duration of time it takes to recite the tashahhud.[2] This is established in the following hadith.

Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (رضي الله عنه) said that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) caught hold of his hand and taught him the tashahhud of Salah. He then narrated the well-known dua of tashahhud. The end of the hadith states, “When you say this (the tashahhud), or complete (sitting the duration of) it, then you have finished your prayer. If you wish to stand up you may do so and if you wish to sit, you may do so.”[3]

They also state that the ‘salaah -was-salaam’ (darood), dua and salaam are not Fardh in Salah, since there is the option of standing up in this hadith. They explain that the first two (darood and dua) are Sunnah Muakkadah[4] while salaam is Waajib.[5] The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “The key to prayer is purification, and its sacredness (begins) with the Takbir, and its release is the Taslim (saying salaam).”[6]

Based on this, the following laws are deduced:

  1. If a masbooq (one who has missed a rak’ah or more) gets up after he recites the tashahhud (or sitting the duration of its recital), then his Salah will still remain valid as all the faraaidh has been completed. However, this will be impermissible and makrooh tahrimi[7] since the Messenger (ﷺ) commanded us to follow the Imam in many ahadith. For instance he said, “The Imam was appointed to be followed, so do not differ from him.”[8] He also expressly prohibited from exiting the Salah before the Imam in the following hadith. Anas (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) one day led us in the Salah and when he completed the Salah he turned his face towards us and said, “O People, I am your Imam, so do not precede me in bowing and prostration and in standing and turning (faces on pronouncing salaam), for I see you in front of me and behind me.”[9] Therefore, it is waajib to follow the Imam till the salaam and makrooh tahrimi to get up before it.[10]

N.B. All the Hanafi scholars agree that a makrooh tahrimi act is prohibited in Shariah in a mandatory manner. It is compulsory to refrain from a makrooh tahrimi act and it is a sin to commit it. [11]  Rather, Imam Muhammad, a formulator of the Hanafi school of thought, is of the opinion that both, haraam and makrooh tahrimi, are similar in the level of prohibition and the severity of punishment.[12]

  1. If the masbooq gets up after the first salaam when the Imam begins saying the second salaam, his Salah will still be valid. [13] However, standing before the completion of the second salaam would be khilaaful awlaa (not the best option) unless his standing was due to a valid reason, like the fear of someone passing in front of him.[14] The reason behind this not being the best option is mentioned below.
  2. The Hanafi fuqaha have clearly stated that the masbooq should stand up after both salaams when it becomes evident that the Imam will not perform sajda – sahw.[15] So the first reason for this delay is to ensure there is no sajda – sahw on the Imam.

Al-Mughirah bin Shu’bah (رضي الله عنه) narrated, “We reached the people while they had already stood in Salah. Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf (رضي الله عنه) was leading them and he had already completed a rakah with them. When he realised that the Prophet (ﷺ) was there, he started to retreat, but the Prophet (ﷺ) motioned to him to continue. So he led them in Salah. [So the Prophet (ﷺ) and I prayed one rak’ah behind him.] After he made salaam, the Prophet (ﷺ) stood up and I stood up and we completed the rak’ah that we had missed.”[16]

From the above it is quite clear that one should stand after both salaams, however due to a valid reason one may stand before completion of both salaams.

Some Hanabilah[17] scholars were of the view that if the masbooq stands before the second salaam, his Fardh Salah would become nafl. Others even said, it will become completely null and void.[18] All the scholars agree that it is desirable to practice the Deen in such a manner that our ebadah etc. is valid according to all the reputable scholars wherever possible.[19] Therefore, this is another reason to delay getting up until after both salaams.

And Allah Ta’ala knows best.

May Allah Azza wa Jall grant us the ability to perform our five times daily Salah behind an Imam from the very first takbeer. Aameen! Yaa Rabbal ‘Aalameen.

Muhammad ibn Suleman Chothia in collaboration with Mufti Muhammad Mahdi

12th Rajab, 1437/18th April, 2016/ FID#2016109

Below are translations of some fatawa on this issue with further clarification:

  1. The late grand Mufti of Deoband, Mufti Azizur Rahman (رحمه الله):

Question:

Will the masbooq stand to complete his remaining rakats after the Imam’s first salaam or second one?

Answer:

It is better to stand after both salaams are made so that if there is a sajdah-sahw on the Imam, he will not have to come back down.

[Fatawa Darul Uloom Qadeem][20]

  1. The late grand Mufti of India, Faqeehul Ummat, Mufti Mahmoodul Hasan Gangohi (رحمه الله):

Question:

The person who has missed a rakat, should he:

  1. Stand when the Imam, while turning his head to the right for the first salaam, has only said the word salaam,
  2. Stand while he is saying the salaam on the left side, or
  3. Stand when he has completed the salaam on the left side?

Which method is best from these three?

Answer:

The method in ‘3’ is the safest and best.

And Allah knows best.

The slave Mahmood. May Allah forgive him. Darul Uloom Deoband, 19/2/90 AH

The answer is correct. The slave Nizamud Deen. May Allah forgive him. Darul Uloom Deoband, 19/2/90 AH

[Fatawa Mahmoodiyah][21]

  1. Hazrat Mufti Radhaul Haqq (حفظه الله):

Question:

 Will the masbooq stand after the first salaam of the Imam or the second?

 Answer:

The masbooq should stand up to complete his missed rakaats after he is sure that the Imam has completed his Salah and there is nothing remaining on him. This is usually known after the second salaam.

[Fatawa Darul Uloom Zakariyah][22]

Further Clarification:

By this statement ‘This is usually know after the second salaam’, Mufti sahib is indicating to the actual text of the fuqahaa who state that the masbooq should even wait a little longer after the second salaam.

The Syrian critical-research scholar and Hanafi authority, Allamah Ibn Abideen Shaami (رحمه الله) states, “He (the masbooq) will not stand after the first or second salaam, rather he will wait until the Imam is complete after both salaams. This is what is mentioned in the books ‘Al-Faidh’ ‘Al-Fath’ and ‘Al-Bahr’. Zandawaisti said in ‘An-Nazm’, ‘He will wait until the Imam stands for his nafl Salah or he reclines in the mihraab if there are no nafl after the Fardh (Salah like in Fajr and Asr).’ However, the author of Halbah said, ‘This is not necessary. Rather the objective is whatever action indicates that there is no (sajdah) sahw on the Imam or the Imam does something which breaks the Salah.’”[23]

From this we see that the fuqaha have stated it is best to wait until one is certain that the Imam does not have to make a sajdah-sahw. Most times this is understood after he has completed the second salaam, while in other rare instances, it may take longer. For instance, if something unusual occurred in the Salah and the masbooq feels it might necessitate sajdah-sahw, but the Imam made both salaams and didn’t do any sajdah-sahw. In such a case, the masbooq may wait a little, because it is a possibility the Imam had forgotten to make the sajdah-sahw and if he remembers and makes it, the masbooq must follow, even if he had stood up to complete his missed rakaats.[24]

And Allah Ta’ala knows best.


[1] Mawsooah Fiqhiyah Vol.15 Pg.267-8

[2] Ad-Durrul Mukhtaar m’a Raddul Muhtaar Vol.2 Pg.168-170

( ومنها القعود الأخير قدر ) أدنى قراءة ( التشهد )

[3] Sunan Abu Dawud #970

[4]So leaving them out would be makrooh. [E’laus Sunan Vol.3 Pg.151]

[5] Tanwirul Absaar m’a Raddul Muhtaar Vol.2 Pg.181 & 193

(لها واجبات ) ( ولفظ السلام)

[6] Abu Dawud #61, Tirmithi #3

[7] See ‘Aap ke Masaail aur unka Hall’ Vol.3 Pg.481

وأما إذا قام المسبوق إلى قضاء ما عليه بعد فراغ الإمام من التشهد قبل السلام فقضاه أجزأه وهو مسيء أما الجواز فلأن قيامه حصل بعد فراغ الإمام من أركان الصلاة وأما الإساءة فلتركه انتظار سلام الإمام لأن أوان قيامه للقضاء بعد خروج الإمام من الصلاة فينبغي أن يؤخر القيام عن السلام. (بدائع الصنائع 1:424)

( وكره تحريما ) أي قيامه بعد قعود إمامه قدر التشهد لوجوب متابعته في السلام. (رد المحتار 2:420)

[8] Bukhari #722 and Muslim #414

[9] Muslim #426

[10] Unless he had a valid Shar’ee reason. For instance, his period for masah (wiping) on his leather socks would end before the Imam makes the salaam. So if the amount of time tashahhud can be read elapsed, the muqtadi may say salaam before the Imam and exit the Salah in such a scenario.

ولا يقوم المسبوق قبل السلام بعد قدر التشهد إلا في مواضع إذا خاف وهو ماسح تمام المدة لو انتظر سلام الإمام أو خاف المسبوق في الجمعة والعيدين والفجر أو المعذور خروج الوقت أو خاف أن يبتدره الحدث أو أن تمر الناس بين يديه ولو قام في غيرها بعد قدر التشهد صح ويكره تحريما لأن المتابعة واجبة بالنص قال صلى الله عليه وسلم إنما جعل الإمام ليؤتم به فلا تختلفوا عليه وهذه مخالفة له إلى غير ذلك من الأحاديث المفيدة للوجوب. (فتح القدير1:400)

ولو قام قبل السلام هل يعتد بأدائه إن قبل قعود الإمام قدر التشهد لا وإن بعده نعم وكره تحريما إلا لعذر كخوف حدث وخروج وقت فجر وجمعة وعيد ومعذور وتمام مدة مسح ومرور مار بين يديه. (الدر مع الرد 2:421)

[11] Raddul Muhtaar Vol.1 Pg.261 المكروه تحريما ممتنع شرعا منعا لازما

The ruling of Makrooh Tahrimi: It is necessary to refrain from it. Denying its impermissibility without evidence is misguidance. Committing it without a valid (Shar’ee) excuse or evidence necessitates blame and punishment. [Al-Moojaz Fi Usoolil Fiqh Pg.45]

صرح العلامة ابن نجيم في رسالته المؤلفة في بيان المعاصي بأن كل مكروه تحريما من الصغائر. (رد المحتار 2:182)

[12] The only difference is if one denies the prohibition of a haraam act he becomes a kaafir while the one who denies the prohibition of a makrooh tahrimi act does not. He is, however, considered a faasiq. Imam Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf, along with agreeing with this difference, were of the opinion that the prohibition of makrooh tahrimi is a notch below the prohibition of haraam and the punishment will be less severe in comparison to it.

ان الحرام و المكروه التحريمي على رأيه (محمد) متساويان في حرمة فعلهما ووجوب العقاب به. وإنما الفرق بينهما بأن المنع في الأول بالقطعي وفي الثاني بالظني. فلا يظهر إلا في حق العلم دون العمل. وعلى هذا يحمل ما نقل عن محمد “إن كل مكروه حرام”. وأما على رأيهما فالمكروه التحريمي أدون من الحرام في حق العمل أيضا حتى يستوجب فاعل الحرام العقاب بالنار وفاعل التحريمي عقوبة دونه كحرمان الشفاعة ونحوه. (السعاية في كشف ما في شرح الوقاية 2:276)

( ويشاركانهما)  أي الايجاب وكراهة التحريم الافتراض والتحريم ( في استحقاق العقاب بالترك ) لما هو مطلوب من كل ( وعنه)  أي التشارك في استحقاق العقاب بترك ما هو المطلوب من كل  ( قال محمد كل مكروه حرام نوعا من التجوز )  في لفظ حرام  ( وقالا على الحقيقة )  المكروه  ( الى الحرام اقرب)  منه الى الحل وانما قلنا مراد محمد ذلك  ( للقطع بان محمدا لا يكفر جاحد المكروه والوجوب )  كما يكفر جاحد الفرض والحرام فلا إختلاف بينه وبينهما في المعنى كما يظن ويؤيده ما ذكر غير واحد انه ذكر محمد في المبسوط ان ابا يوسف قال لابي حنيفة اذا قلت في شيء اكرهه فما رايك فيه قال التحريم وياتي في هذا ايضا ما في لفظ محمد للقطع ايضا بأن ابا حنيفة لا يكفر جاحد المكروه (التقرير والتحبير 2:103)

[13] See ‘Kifayatul Mufti’ Vol.3 Pg.437 and ‘Aap ke Masaail aur unka Hall’ Vol.4 Pg.526

[14] Fathul Qadeer Vol.1 Pg.400, Fatawa Hindiyyah Vol.1 Pg.91

وكذا إذا خاف المسبوق أن يمر الناس بين يديه لو انتظر سلام الإمام قام إلى قضاء ما سبق قبل فراغه كذا في الوجيز للكردري (الهندية)

[15] Fathul Qadeer Vol.1 Pg.400, Bahrur Raaiq Vol.2 Pg.662, Fatawa Hindiyyah Vol.1 Pg.91 , Raddul Muhtaar Vol.2 Pg.419-421

وينبغي أن يصبر حتى يفهم أنه لا سهو على الإمام. (الدر المختار)

قوله ( وينبغي أن يصير الخ ) أي لا يقوم بعد التسليمة أو التسليمتين بل ينتظر فراغ الإمام بعدهما كما في الفيض والفتح والبحر

 قال الزندويستي في النظم يمكث حتى يقوم الإمام إلى تطوعه أو يستند إلى المحراب إن كان لا تطوع بعدها ا هـ

 قال في الحلية وليس هذا بلازم بل المقصود ما يفهم أن لا سهو على الإمام أو يوجد له ما يقطع حرمة الصلاة ا هـ (رد المحتار)

[16] Muslim #81 and Abu Dawud #152. Arif Billah Hazrat Maulana Shaah Hakim Muhammad Akhtar sahib has listed standing after both salaams as a Sunnah in his ‘Aik Minute Ka Madraah’, Lesson 51.

[17] Followers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal

[18] Al-Insaaf Vol.2 Pg.222-223, Mawsooah Fiqhiyah Vol.37 Pg.163. There is another opinion that his iqtidaa will break but not his fardh. Imam Shafee has also considered it mustahab for the masbooq to stand after both salaams. [See Al-Majmoo Vol.3 Pg.464, Mawsooah Fiqhiyah Vol.37 Pg.163]

[19] See ‘Sharh Nawawi on Sahih Muslim’ Vol.2 Pg.23, ‘Manaasik Mulla Ali Qari’ Pg.218, Durr Vol.1 Pg.304

فان العلماء متفقون على الحث على الخروج من الخلاف اذا لم يلزم منه اخلال بسنة أو وقوع فى خلاف آخر. (شرح مسلم)

قال العلامة ملا علي قاري: والخروج عن الخلاف مستحب بالإجماع.

يندب للخروج من الخلاف لا سيما للإمام لكن بشرط عدم لزوم ارتكاب مكروه مذهبه. (الدر المختار)

[20] Vol.3 Pg.259

[21] Vol.10 Pg.422

[22] Vol.2 Pg.300 Also see ‘Kitabul Masaail’ Vol.1 Pg.428 ‘Khairul Fatawa’ Vol.2 Pg.407,

[23] Raddul Muhtaar Vol.2 Pg.420

[24] This is on the condition that he hasn’t reached the sajdah of the first missed rakah. If the masbooq already completed the sajdah of the first missed rakah and then his Imam remembers the sahw and does the sajdah-sahw, the masbooq will not follow him. In this case, if he follows the Imam, his Salah will break. [Badai’us Sana’I Vol.1 Pg.177-8, Durrul Mukhtaar, Raddul Muhtaar Vol.2 Pg.]

ولو قام بعد ما سلم ثم تذكر الإمام سجدتي السهو فخر لهما فهذا على وجهين أما إن كان المسبوق قيد ركعته بالسجدة أو لم يقيد فإن لم يقيد ركعته بالسجدة رفض ذلك ويسجد مع الإمام … وإن كان المسبوق قيد ركعته بالسجدة لا يعود إلى متابعة الإمام لأن الانفراد قد تم وليس على الإمام ركن ولو عاد فسدت صلاته لأنه اقتدى بغيره بعد وجود الانفراد ووجوبه فتفسد صلاته. (بدائع الصنائع)

ومتابعة المسبوق إمامه في سجود السهو بعد تأكد انفراده أما قبله فتجب متابعته. (الدر المختار)

قوله ( بعد تأكد انفراده ) وذلك بأن قام إلى قضاء ما فاته بعد سلام الإمام أو قبله بعد قعوده قدر التشهد وقيد ركعته بسجدة فإذا تذكر الإمام سجود سهو فتابعه فسدت صلاته. (رد المحتار)

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One thought on “When Should a Masbooq Stand up to Complete his Missed Rak’aat?

  1. Abu Yusuf

    If a person joins the salat while the imam is not in qiyam, does he have to stand for a bit after takbir before joining the imam in ruku or sajda? Does he have to fold his hands below the navel while standing ?

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